Venous Thromboembolism and Australia Pharmacy

2014-10-28 / Other / 0 Comments

Proven, symptomatic VTE or fatal PE occurring between discharge from hospital, when thromboprophylaxis was stopped, and 3 months later. Values in parentheses are %. Venous Thromboembolism

Sudden death occurred in three patients with known heart disease. No autopsies were performed, so PE was not excluded.

Thus, while extended prophylaxis appears to reduce the relative risk of symptomatic VTE by about 60%, the absolute risk reduction is low, especially for PE.

Six randomized, placebo-controlled clinical tri-als have evaluated extended LMWH prophylaxis for up to 35 days among THR patients who completed in-hospital prophylaxis with either LMWH (ie, enoxaparin or dalteparin) or warfarin. Each study observed lower rates of venographically screened DVT with extended prophylaxis. A systematic review of these six trials demonstrated a significant decrease in both total and proximal DVT with extended LMWH use, as well as reduced risk of symptomatic VTE arising during the treatment period generic viagra new zealand. The rates of out-of-hospital symptomatic VTE were 4.2% with in-hospital prophylaxis and 1.4% with extended prophylaxis (relative risk, 0.36; p < 0.001; NNT, 36). In another randomized clinical trial that compared in-hospital use of LMWH and LMWH therapy that was continued after hospital discharge, extended prophylaxis did not further prevent symptomatic VTE.

One clinical trial also confirmed the benefit of posthospital discharge pophylaxis with VKAs. More than 350 consecutive patients undergoing THR were randomized to receive warfarin prophylaxis (target INR, 2 to 3) until hospital discharge (mean duration, 9 days) or for another 4 weeks after hospital discharge. DUS was performed 1, 2, and 4 weeks post-hospital discharge. The study was prematurely terminated because of the demonstrated superiority of extended prophylaxis. VTE occurred in 5.1% of in-hospital prophylaxis patients, and in 0.5% of those who continued warfarin, a relative risk of 9.4 (95% CI, 1.2 to 73.5). The NNT to prevent one VTE using extended warfarin prophylaxis was 22.

Only one patient experienced major bleeding. In another trial of 1,279 patients undergoing THR, the LMWH reviparin (4,200 U SC once daily) was compared with a VKA (target INR, 2 to 3), both administered for 6 weeks. Objectively confirmed, symptomatic VTE occurred in 2.3% of patients receiving LMWH, and in 3.3% of those receiving the VKA (p = 0.3). However, the rates of major bleeding were 1.3% and 5.5%, respectively (p = 0.001). Thus, these studies indicate that VKAs also may provide effective extended prophylaxis after THR, although major bleeding is more frequent with the use of these anticoagulants.

Extending LMWH prophylaxis to postoperative day 28 in one clinical trial of patients undergoing TKA did not significantly reduce the rate of objectively screened DVT (17.5%) compared to 7 to 10 days of prophylaxis (20.8%). Hospital readmission rates for VTE also did not differ significantly (3.2% and 5.4%, respectively).

Read More

Asthma-like symptoms and the risk for BHR

2014-10-22 / Asthma / 0 Comments

Current smokers in both our samples had the largest BHR values, with an OR of 1.39 for getting an elevated slope. The tendency to an increased BR for smokers has been observed in previous studies, and it has been supported by pathological evidences of important changes in large and peripheral airways induced by smoke, which lead to different degrees of airway obstruction. Moreover, Mitsunobu and associates reported that the cumulative dose of methacholine causing a significant increase in total respiratory resistance was significantly lower in asthmatics with a smoking history than in those without it. risk for BHR

We also showed a strong relationship between chronic bronchitis-like or asthma-like symptoms and the risk for BHR (OR, 1.30 and OR, 2.65, respectively), bringing further evidence to a reappraisal of the Dutch hypothesis. Furthermore, our findings underline the association of a positive skin reactivity (OR, 1.32) or of higher total IgE values (OR, 1.61) with an enhanced BR, according to other studies.

We also confirmed the inverse relationship between airway caliber and BHR, which could be ascribed to anatomic, mechanical, and mathematical factors: the flow resistance in a tube is inversely proportional to the radius of the tube to the fourth power Cheap Viagra. This leads to a proportionally greater resistance for a narrow airway. Hence, the influence of baseline lung function must be accounted for when analyzing BHR.

BHR and Urban Residence

In our investigation, after controlling for the independent effects of gender, age, smoking habits, respiratory symptoms/diseases, and atopic status, residence in an urban area appears to be an independent risk factor for BHR (OR, 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13 to 1.76). Interestingly, such an OR is of the same magnitude as the one for active smoking (1.39).

Likely, there is higher outdoor air pollution in urban than in rural areas. Indeed, when we had evaluated pollutants (sulfur dioxide, total suspended particulate) from the two areas, we had found higher mean annual levels in Pisa than in Po Delta, with differences of 40 ^g/m3 for total suspended particulate (94 ^g/m3 and 54 ^g/m3, respectively) and 7 ^g/m3 for sulphur dioxide (15 ^g/mand 8 ^g/m3, respectively).

Read More

We have confirmed the important role of several risk factors for BHR

2014-10-14 / Disease / 0 Comments

Pisa, the slope values began to go up from 25 to 34 years, while in Po Delta from 45 to 54 years. Moreover, in Pisa, the highest slope values were reached at 65 to 74 years while in Po Delta at 8 to 14 years. “Current smokers” showed mean slope values significantly higher than “ex-smokers” and “never-smokers” in Po Delta; the same difference, although not significant, was observed in Pisa. In both samples, mean ln slope values showed a significantly increasing trend from the “others” through the “chronic bronchitis-like subjects” up to the “asthmalike subjects”; further, mean ln slope values were significantly higher in atopic subjects (high values of IgE or positive skin-prick test reaction).

By logistic regression analysis, the risk factors significantly associated with an elevated ln slope value were as follows: female gender, younger age (8-14 years and 15-24 years), current smokers, asthma-like subjects, positive Viagra online in Australia skin-prick test reaction, and elevated log IgE value (Table 5). Moreover, airway caliber had a significant protective relationship with BHR. After controlling for the independent effects of all these variables, people living in the urban area had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.41 of getting BHR with respect to people living in the rural area (Table 5). No significant association was found between BHR and either work or passive smoking exposure.


We have confirmed the important role of several risk factors for BHR. The significantly higher risk of an elevated ln slope of the dose-response curve in female Viagra online Canada subjects is in agreement with previous studies on adults and on children. Possible mechanisms, as reported by Paoletti are a higher cholinergic irritability in female subjects and hormonal differences related to sex (such as pregnancy and menstrual cycle).

The distribution of BR by age showed a “U” pattern, with the highest values corresponding to the youngest and oldest ages. Sparrow and Weiss had already indicated larger BHR values at the age extremes. These results were confirmed partially by Renwick and Con-nolly, who described a weak positive association between BHR and age in a population sample aged 45 to 86 years, and by Schwartz who found the highest BHR values in the younger subjects within a sample aged 18 to 60 years.

Read More

Lung Diseases

2014-10-13 / Disease / 0 Comments

Subsequent information provided by the local environment control authorities on nitrogen dioxide indicated a difference of 41 ^g/m3 (mean annual levels: 59 ^g/m3 in Pisa and 18 ^g/m3 in Po Delta).

The Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults also found that the annual average concentration of air pollutants was higher in urban areas than in rural/alpine areas. Moreover, it showed a relationship between annual average air pollution concentration and decrement in lung function parameters: for example, a 1.59% reduction in FEVwas estimated in healthy never-smokers for a 10 ^g/m3 increase of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 ^m.

The prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms and the chromosome aberrations baseline frequency were significantly higher in Pisa than in Po Delta. These findings might be due to the larger exposure to air pollution in Pisa. An indication of this hypothesis comes from the data regarding the self-perception of air pollution exposure: 55% of the Pisa subjects reported exposure to air pollution sources (industrial fumes/gases and traffic), while only 15% of Po Delta subjects did so. A study in Scotland highlighted that urban residence is associated with worse respiratory health status or quality of life among subjects reporting respiratory symptoms/ diseases than rural residence. Moreover, people living in the urban area of Pisa had a higher value of serum antibodies to benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide-DNA adducts than people living in the suburban area of Pisa.

Few recent studies analyzed the relation between BHR and air pollution indicators, confirming our findings. Jang and colleagues found a significant increase in BHR and atopy in children living near a chemical factory with respect to those in rural/coastal areas. A similar result has been shown in a study about BHR in urban, periurban, and rural South African children. Furthermore, Longhini and col-leagues showed that normal children living in an air-polluted area had a higher prevalence of BHR, compared with those living in mountain valleys.

Read More

Anatomy and Physiology of the Nose

2014-10-08 / Nose / 0 Comments

Computer-based literature searches were used to identify all reports and reviews concerned with nasal conditions and SDB. These reports were read by the authors, reanalyzed, and grouped into those evaluating nasal-associated effects on SDB in normal control subjects, patients with nasal conditions or SDB, and children. Nose

Anatomy and Physiology of the Nose

The nose is lined by pseudostratified epithelium resting on a basement membrane, separating it from deeper submucosal layers. The submucosa contains mucous, seromucous, and serous glands. The small arteries, arterioles, and arteriovenous anastamoses determine regional blood flow. Capacitance vessels, consisting of veins and cavernous sinusoids, determine nasal patency. Constriction and relaxation of these venous capacitance vessels is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system Viagra online Australia. The cavernous sinusoids lie beneath the capillaries and venules, are most dense in the inferior and middle turbinates, and contain smooth-muscle cells controlled by the sympathetic nervous system. Loss of sympathetic tone or, to a lesser degree, cholinergic stimulation causes this sinusoidal erectile tissue to become engorged. Cholinergic stimulation causes arterial dilation and promotes the passive diffusion of plasma proteins into glands and the active secretion by mucous glands in cells.

Novel neurotransmitters, including substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and vasointestinal peptide, have been detected in nasal secretions after nasal allergen challenge of patients with allergic rhinitis. Antidromic stimulation of sensory nerve fibers in the nose can release a variety of neurotransmitters including substance P, a mediator of increased vascular permeability. Because neurotransmitters also produce changes in regional blood flow and glandular secretion, their role in rhinitis may be important.

Read More

HealthNews: Erectile Dysfunction

2014-10-06 / Erectile Dysfunction / 0 Comments

Patients with high NEDV also were more likely to receive steroid treatments in the ED. While ED length of stay did not differ between groups, patients with a higher NEDV were more likely to be admitted to the hospital. Among patients sent home, systemic corticosteroids were more likely to be prescribed to patients with more ED visits.

Among patients admitted from the ED Generic viagra, the median hospital length of stay was 3 days, which did not differ between NEDV groups (p = 0.69). Patients with a higher NEDV were more likely to report a relapse event during the 2 weeks following the index visit (10%, 14%, 16%, and 21%, respectively; p < 0.001). Patients who frequently use the ED also were more likely to report an ongoing exacerbation at 2-week follow-up (17%, 23%, 25%, and 40%, respectively; p < 0.001).

Manual stepwise, multivariate logistic regression modeling was performed to assess factors associated with high ED use (Table 3). The final model includes age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, insurance status, PCP status, history of hospitalization for asthma, history of intubation for asthma, and recent use of inhaled corticosteroids. While age and sex are not significant predictors of high ED use, whites were less likely to be “high-use” patients. Furthermore, when these factors are controlled, patients with Medicaid insurance were 2.8 times more likely to be very frequent visitors to the ED (p < 0.001). In this ED population, PCP status continued to have no relation with frequency of ED use. By contrast, several measures of chronic asthma severity (eg, history of hospitalization, intubation for asthma, and receiving inhaled corticosteroids during the past 4 weeks) all were independent predictors of frequent ED use.


To our knowledge, this is the first large, multicenter study that characterizes asthma patients who frequently utilize the ED for their asthma care. The data were drawn from > 3,000 patients in 83 US EDs. Based on the diversity of these sites, and similar results from previous smaller-scale studies,14-15 we believe that our findings can be generalized to other EDs and may help to identify and target adult asthma patients with very frequent use of the ED for their asthma care.

Read More

Treatment by Mind

2014-10-02 / Health News, Treatment / 0 Comments

Diseases may be treated by thoughts. The mind may expel any disease from the human body.

Words are powerful. So is the human mind. It is enough for somebody to apply consciously, with faith, his thoughts to experience that power. Will is needed for that. Through thoughts people, suffering with incurable, horrible diseases, are healed. As long as one believes in the power of the mind, he can do wonders with it. However, strong will is needed for that, without any hesitation.

If people knew the laws that govern the human mind, they could cope with all weaknesses of theirs. There is no a weakness, which could not be fixed by the mind.

Not only the beings from other planets and civilizations influence the Earth, but all people, who are about three billion, affect the Earth and Nature by their brains. The brains of all people affect the entire structure of the Earth. If people concentrated their minds on a certain point, they could melt everything that is there. Rock would be melted by the energy radiated by the human brains. People, if they knew how, could melt all sorrows and diseases by concentration of the mind.

The organism has certain vibrations when it is healthy. The vibrations of the various diseases are different. However, each disease means that the vibrations are decreased. The temperature should be increased. This happens by special thoughts and formulas that change the vibrations when one introduces them into his organism. This is achieved by looking at beautiful paintings and landscapes. The night sky may also serve as a remedy. One, who is frustrated and sick, shall look at the vibrating with different lights stars. One may encourage and recover through the starlight.

Each word has a certain power. If you focus your attention on a word, your brain will connect to the power that is in it and you will experience encouragement or fatigue depending on the nature  of the word. There are words that once spoken, cannot be pronounced again. Why? They have a harmful effect on the human brain. For example, if you pronounce several times the words: “I will get ill.”, you will experience their bad effect on your body and it will not be long before you may get ill. And conversely, if a tubercular patient repeats several times a day the words: “I will recover”, he really will.

People may treat themselves by the mind. The stronger and focused the human mind is, the easier one may recover from a disease. It is enough for him to say a word to recover. There are words that have a magical effect on humans. You shall also know when to say the word. Everything should happen at its place and time.

Read More

Health News: Reasons for Diseases

2014-10-01 / Health News / 0 Comments

Never stay in the shadow of a tree or in the shadow of somebody else. This is a rule, which may be tried by everybody. Many diseases are due to shadows. Each beam, which has reached a man, is evaporated by his organism and after that it comes out again in the form of a dead light. In the shadow of the flower, of the tree or in the shadow of the house, there is still light under the effect of the direct solar beams, and not of the indirect, i.e. the beams of the shadow. Never stay in shadow. Nothing grows in it.

Man cannot keep a certain idea in his mind without it to produce a certain physiological effect on his brain and his nervous system. Knowing the power of the thoughts, of the feelings and of your deeds, you shall be careful about them. One thought, one feeling, one word may cause in the brain and heart of somebody such a tension that it can cripple him.

There is no a stronger poison than the negative thoughts, feelings and states of somebody. Fear, hatred, doubt, suspicion are such poisons. They are dregs, which accumulate in blood and poison it. May man be healthy at such states?

Disharmonious thoughts upset the brain nervous system; disharmonious feelings upset the sympathetic nervous system, and the disharmonious deeds upset the muscle and bone systems. The physical and psychic lives are closely connected.

Our unclean thoughts and desires sometimes leave dregs in our consciousness, as a result of which lots of painful states occur. These dregs accumulate on the spiritual body of man and produce internal perturbations.

Some diseases are nothing else, but a result from spells from the past. For each mischief, wickedness or injustice, done to somebody, man perceives his dissatisfaction and spell, which introduces disharmony in his organism and predisposition to diseases. The wishes of people to their fellows, not matter good or bad, reach them finally. Human thoughts are powerful.

The way the cart shakes somebody, in the same way the vibrations of rude words, of negative thoughts and feelings cause shaking to the nervous system.

It is awful for somebody to keep bad thoughts about somebody else in his mind. Mendacious thoughts accumulate on the consciousness of man as dregs and cause him lots of troubles and sufferings. Negative thoughts make man nervous and indisposed. In order to get rid of bad and negative thoughts, one shall work on his self-education.

While thinking, man knows the place of each word and never smears his language. As long as his language is clean, his body will be healthy. If he introduces one unclean word in his language, he smears his thinking. As long as his thinking is smeared, he introduces poison in his organism and after a while he gets ill.

Read More