Glucose Testing in Australia Pharmacy

2014-11-10 / Disease / 0 Comments


Where is the best place to obtain blood for measuring blood glucose levels?

It is usually easiest to obtain blood from the fingertips. You can use either the pulp, which is the fleshy part of the fingertip, or the sides of the fingertips. The sides of the fingertips are less sensitive than the pulp. Some people like to use the area just below the nailbed. It may be necessary for people such as guitarists, pianists or typists to avoid the finger pulp. There are a couple of meters that allow blood to be taken from the arm. BLOOD GLUCOSE TESTING

Which is the best finger pricking device?

All blood lancets (finger prickers) are very similar and there is little to choose between them. The lancets may be used either on their own or in conjunction with an automatic device. They are obtainable on prescription from your CP. Alternatively they can be bought from a chemist, or ordered by post from companies such as Owen Mumford (Medical Shop).

The automatic devices work on the principle of hiding the lancet from view while piercing the skin very quickly and at a controlled depth. The meter you are using will have had an accompanying finger pricking device. They are not available on prescription, but can be obtained from the manufacturer of your meter or by post from companies such as Owen Mumford.

Should I clean my fingers with spirit or antiseptic before pricking them?

We do not recommend that you use spirit for cleaning your fingers. Spirit or antiseptic could interfere with the test strip and cause soreness if you have recently pricked the same finger. We suggest that you wash your hands with soap and warm water, or only water, and dry them thoroughly before pricking your finger. The main reason for having a clean finger is to remove any contamination, such as food, that may cause a false blood glucose result.

Will constant finger pricking make my fingers sore?

You may find that your fingers feel sore for the first week or two after starting blood glucose monitoring but this seems to settle down. We have seen many people who have been measuring their blood glucose levels regularly three or four times a day for more than 15 years and who have no problems with sore fingers. The more up-to-date meters use very small amounts of blood and so you don’t need to prick your finger too brutally! Don’t always use the same finger – try to use different fingers in turn.

Will my fingers take a long time to heal after finger pricking and am I more likely to pick up an infection there?

Your fingertips should heal as quickly as those of someone without diabetes, but make sure that you are using suitable blood lancets. We have seen only one infected finger among many hundreds of thousands of finger pricks. As long as your hands are clean when you take your blood sample, you should not have any problems.

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We have confirmed the important role of several risk factors for BHR

2014-10-14 / Disease / 0 Comments

Pisa, the slope values began to go up from 25 to 34 years, while in Po Delta from 45 to 54 years. Moreover, in Pisa, the highest slope values were reached at 65 to 74 years while in Po Delta at 8 to 14 years. “Current smokers” showed mean slope values significantly higher than “ex-smokers” and “never-smokers” in Po Delta; the same difference, although not significant, was observed in Pisa. In both samples, mean ln slope values showed a significantly increasing trend from the “others” through the “chronic bronchitis-like subjects” up to the “asthmalike subjects”; further, mean ln slope values were significantly higher in atopic subjects (high values of IgE or positive skin-prick test reaction).

By logistic regression analysis, the risk factors significantly associated with an elevated ln slope value were as follows: female gender, younger age (8-14 years and 15-24 years), current smokers, asthma-like subjects, positive Viagra online in Australia skin-prick test reaction, and elevated log IgE value (Table 5). Moreover, airway caliber had a significant protective relationship with BHR. After controlling for the independent effects of all these variables, people living in the urban area had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.41 of getting BHR with respect to people living in the rural area (Table 5). No significant association was found between BHR and either work or passive smoking exposure.


We have confirmed the important role of several risk factors for BHR. The significantly higher risk of an elevated ln slope of the dose-response curve in female Viagra online Canada subjects is in agreement with previous studies on adults and on children. Possible mechanisms, as reported by Paoletti are a higher cholinergic irritability in female subjects and hormonal differences related to sex (such as pregnancy and menstrual cycle).

The distribution of BR by age showed a “U” pattern, with the highest values corresponding to the youngest and oldest ages. Sparrow and Weiss had already indicated larger BHR values at the age extremes. These results were confirmed partially by Renwick and Con-nolly, who described a weak positive association between BHR and age in a population sample aged 45 to 86 years, and by Schwartz who found the highest BHR values in the younger subjects within a sample aged 18 to 60 years.

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Lung Diseases

2014-10-13 / Disease / 0 Comments

Subsequent information provided by the local environment control authorities on nitrogen dioxide indicated a difference of 41 ^g/m3 (mean annual levels: 59 ^g/m3 in Pisa and 18 ^g/m3 in Po Delta).

The Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults also found that the annual average concentration of air pollutants was higher in urban areas than in rural/alpine areas. Moreover, it showed a relationship between annual average air pollution concentration and decrement in lung function parameters: for example, a 1.59% reduction in FEVwas estimated in healthy never-smokers for a 10 ^g/m3 increase of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 ^m.

The prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms and the chromosome aberrations baseline frequency were significantly higher in Pisa than in Po Delta. These findings might be due to the larger exposure to air pollution in Pisa. An indication of this hypothesis comes from the data regarding the self-perception of air pollution exposure: 55% of the Pisa subjects reported exposure to air pollution sources (industrial fumes/gases and traffic), while only 15% of Po Delta subjects did so. A study in Scotland highlighted that urban residence is associated with worse respiratory health status or quality of life among subjects reporting respiratory symptoms/ diseases than rural residence. Moreover, people living in the urban area of Pisa had a higher value of serum antibodies to benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide-DNA adducts than people living in the suburban area of Pisa.

Few recent studies analyzed the relation between BHR and air pollution indicators, confirming our findings. Jang and colleagues found a significant increase in BHR and atopy in children living near a chemical factory with respect to those in rural/coastal areas. A similar result has been shown in a study about BHR in urban, periurban, and rural South African children. Furthermore, Longhini and col-leagues showed that normal children living in an air-polluted area had a higher prevalence of BHR, compared with those living in mountain valleys.

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