Blood Glucose testing

2014-12-04 / Diabetes / No Comment


I have Type 2 diabetes and have just started tablets. I am testing my urine but would prefer to test my blood sugar. Why does my CP not seem keen to prescribe blood testing strips for me?

Blood glucose monitoring for people with Type 2 diabetes is a controversial area. Some healthcare professionals feel that there is no proof that blood testing helps people improve their diabetic control. Blood testing is reasonably costly and it can be argued that if it doesn’t improve things then the expense is not justified. However, you may feel that home blood glucose monitoring may help you to understand your diabetes better. For example, it can tell you what happens if you take exercise or eat a big meal. Blood testing may give you a sense of being more in control. You may wish to discuss with your doctor or nurse how you think you could benefit from testing your blood glucose. – blog by canadian health care mall.

Are the blood glucose meters accurate enough for daily use?

Most results obtained when you are using a meter will be slightly different from the clinic laboratory results or even from different makes of meters because different technological methods are used. These slight differences do not matter and the strips and meters are quite accurate enough for home use provided your technique is correct. If you are concerned that your results may not be accurate you can check the meter yourself by using the quality control solution provided with the meter. Phone the meter company helpline for advice or contact your diabetes specialist nurse who can check both your meter and your technique.

I have heard that there is a watch you can wear that measures the blood sugar automatically. Is this right?

You are thinking about the ClucoWatch, developed by a Californian company called Cygnus Inc. Unfortunately there were many technological problems and so the GlucoWatch is currently unavailable in the UK. This device is worn like a wristwatch and measures blood glucose from interstitial fluid every 10-20 minutes depending on the model. The watch had to be fitted with a sensor which only lasted for 12 hours and was expensive to buy.

I have heard that it is now possible to obtain a meter, which can measure the blood glucose constantly without the need for repeated fingerpricks. How do I get hold of one?

Meters which provide a continuous read-out of blood glucose levels are available for research purposes and for short-term use. The eventual aim is to connect these meters to an insulin pump allowing the dose of insulin to be controlled by the level of blood glucose – a true ‘artificial pancreas’. The technology is promising but not fully developed.

At present the Minimed Medtronic can record the blood glucose continuously for three days and many diabetes centres will own such a meter. They can be loaned to people who are having problems with their diabetes control and are used to identify patterns of either high or low blood sugars. They do not produce an immediate reading but can be downloaded to a computer to print out a three-day blood glucose curve. Unfortunately the three-day probes are expensive and are not yet practical for long term use. – blog by Health and Medicine Articles.

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The essential fatty acids

2014-11-20 / Health News / No Comment

The higher the saturated fat content of a fat or oil means it becomes solid at a lower temperature. All fats will turn liquid as the temperature rises. All oils turn solid as temperature drops. The temperature at which this occurs depends on the ratio of saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids. essential fatty acids

The essential fatty acids go rancid (oxidize) quite easily, particularly linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, so must be treated with care. Polyunsaturated oils oxidize when subjected to heat, oxygen and moisture from cooking or processing. Rancid oils are characterized by free radicals — single atoms or clusters with an unpaired electron in an outer orbit — that cause many health problems. They are associated with premature aging, autoimmune diseases such as arthritis, Parkinson’s disease, Lou Gehrig’s disease, Alzheimer’s and cataracts. With extreme chemical reactivity, they attack cell membranes and red blood cells, damage DNA/RNA strands and trigger mutations in tissue, blood vessels and skin. Free radical damage to the skin causes wrinkles and premature aging, where as free radical damage to tissues and organs sets the stage for tumors. Since most fats and oils contain polyunsaturated oils, they should never be heated or used in cooking. Commercially sold oils that are high in rancid polyunsaturated fatty acids include the common vegetable oils.

Avoid these oils, as most of them are highly processed:

Canola Oil

Soybean Oil

Corn Oil

Safflower Oil

Cottonseed Oil

Crapeseed Oil

Sunflower Oil

Organic, extra-virgin and cold-pressed olive oil is safe to consume, for it has not been exposed to the harsh conditions of refining. The term “extra-virgin” indicates it is unrefined and “cold-pressed” indicates heat was not used during the extraction process. Choose those that are packaged in dark bottles, since exposure to sunlight can cause the polyunsaturated fatty acids portion of olive oil to oxidize.

When selecting oils for cooking, select those with a higher proportion of saturated fatty acids, which are stable at higher temperatures and will not go rancid as easily as polyunsaturated fatty acids. Coconut oil, butter, ghee, tallow and lard are preferred choices for cooking because of their high saturated fatty acid content. Always choose raw and organic versions of these oils.

Avoid heating fats and oils whenever possible, since raw fats and oils contain many nutrients that are heat-labile. The fats found in raw soybeans, raw cream and raw butter contain nutrients — such as the Wulzen or “anti-stiffness” factor — that help lubricate the joints and support liver function. These nutrients protect against calcification of the joints, essentially preventing degenerative joint conditions such as arthritis. They also protect the arteries, eyes and pineal gland, lubricates joints, skin, eyes and areas of muscle aches and cramps. These benefits are destroyed by pasteurization (over heating) and homogenization (excess blending) of milk.

For More information, please visit the Australian website - there you‘ll find lots of interesting articles and news from the world of medicine :)

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Relationship is a healing practice

2014-11-11 / Health News / No Comment

Relationship is a healing practice. Our being together may have a far deeper meaning than we realize. It brings our character flaws and unresolved issues clearly into focus and encourages us to perfect ourselves. Our interactions with others, especially others with whom we are close, act as a magnifying glass and a magnet for the beliefs, feelings, thoughts, and behaviors we attach to so closely they become invisible. If we “bend over backward,” “walk on eggshells,” or “refuse to rock the boat,” we compromise ourselves and prevent true communion. This keeps us, as well as the other person, stuck, and it precludes any sense of separation or detachment. Therefore, if I am not separate from you and you are not separate from me, neither of us has room to breathe. It is not coincidental that we use the words “You take my breath away” when we are overwhelmed with deep feelings for another person. Relationship

Being in a loving relationship is a gift as well as a practice. It is about more than the obvious issues of romance, attraction, comfort, and security. Loving relationships allow you to experience life in a way that may not always be without pain yet can offer the opportunity to polish the gemstone of your nature. When asthma symptoms arise, whether they manifest as your own or a family member’s, they provide opportunities to make the necessary healing changes.

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The following imagery exercise is one that gives you a chance to Focus on and nurture your primary relationship — the one with yourself, which so deeply affects the ones you have with others. If you choose, you may use this exercise to begin the day for the next 21 days.

Some people find it difficult to hug themselves in adult form. They reduce themselves to child size. They use images of their children, grandchildren, nieces, and nephews instead. If it’s this difficult to love ourselves in our imagination, where anything is possible, it makes sense that it would be even more difficult in our everyday lives. Since joy is the primary mind medicine to open and heal the lungs, and love is so deeply related to joy, it’s not hard to see the importance of making a correction. You might ask yourself: What beliefs do I have that prevent me from loving myself as I am? Do I deserve affection? Am I worth it?

The first time Nick, a sixty-five-year-old retiree with acute asthmatic symptoms, tried to imagine he was hugging himself, he found it impossible. Instead, he hugged his grandson. Later, he realized he had skipped a generation by passing over his son; even that felt too close. At the end of 21 days, however, the process of imagery had worked its magic; Nick was able to imaginally hold his face in his hands quite tenderly. He explained how doing this gave him a feeling of warmth that he had missed as a child and had feared as an adult. When Nick stayed with his discomfort, not complaining or judging it, it became an act of healing. If you feel as Nick did, that hugging yourself is awkward and uncomfortable, the key is not to run away but to turn toward thediscomfort and embrace it. You can do this by continuing to practice this exercise. Whatever disturbance you experience is a signal that treating yourself in a loving way is just the kind of mind medicine you need.

More information about relationship and other health articles read on this Australian pharmacy site.

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Glucose Testing in Australia Pharmacy

2014-11-10 / Disease / No Comment


Where is the best place to obtain blood for measuring blood glucose levels?

It is usually easiest to obtain blood from the fingertips. You can use either the pulp, which is the fleshy part of the fingertip, or the sides of the fingertips. The sides of the fingertips are less sensitive than the pulp. Some people like to use the area just below the nailbed. It may be necessary for people such as guitarists, pianists or typists to avoid the finger pulp. There are a couple of meters that allow blood to be taken from the arm. BLOOD GLUCOSE TESTING

Which is the best finger pricking device?

All blood lancets (finger prickers) are very similar and there is little to choose between them. The lancets may be used either on their own or in conjunction with an automatic device. They are obtainable on prescription from your CP. Alternatively they can be bought from a chemist, or ordered by post from companies such as Owen Mumford (Medical Shop).

The automatic devices work on the principle of hiding the lancet from view while piercing the skin very quickly and at a controlled depth. The meter you are using will have had an accompanying finger pricking device. They are not available on prescription, but can be obtained from the manufacturer of your meter or by post from companies such as Owen Mumford.

Should I clean my fingers with spirit or antiseptic before pricking them?

We do not recommend that you use spirit for cleaning your fingers. Spirit or antiseptic could interfere with the test strip and cause soreness if you have recently pricked the same finger. We suggest that you wash your hands with soap and warm water, or only water, and dry them thoroughly before pricking your finger. The main reason for having a clean finger is to remove any contamination, such as food, that may cause a false blood glucose result.

Will constant finger pricking make my fingers sore?

You may find that your fingers feel sore for the first week or two after starting blood glucose monitoring but this seems to settle down. We have seen many people who have been measuring their blood glucose levels regularly three or four times a day for more than 15 years and who have no problems with sore fingers. The more up-to-date meters use very small amounts of blood and so you don’t need to prick your finger too brutally! Don’t always use the same finger – try to use different fingers in turn.

Will my fingers take a long time to heal after finger pricking and am I more likely to pick up an infection there?

Your fingertips should heal as quickly as those of someone without diabetes, but make sure that you are using suitable blood lancets. We have seen only one infected finger among many hundreds of thousands of finger pricks. As long as your hands are clean when you take your blood sample, you should not have any problems.

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Diabetes – Monitoring and Control in Canadian Health and Care Mall

2014-11-03 / Diabetes / No Comment

The key to a successful life with diabetes is achieving good blood glucose control. Your degree of success can be judged only by measurements of your body’s response to treatment. If you have diabetes, the fact that you feel well does not necessarily mean that your blood glucose is well controlled. It is only when control goes badly wrong that you may be aware that something is amiss. If your blood glucose is too low, you may be aware of hypo symptoms -if left untreated this may progress to unconsciousness (hypoglycaemic coma). At the other end of the spectrum, when the blood glucose concentration rises very steeply, you may be aware of increased thirst and passing urine excessively – left untreated, this may progress to nausea, vomiting, weakness, and eventual clouding of consciousness and coma (a condition called ketoacidosis). It has long been apparent that relying on how you feel is too imprecise, even though some people may be able to ‘feel’ subtle changes in their control. Diabetes - Monitoring

For this reason, many different tests have been developed to allow precise measurement of control and, as the years go by, these tests become more efficient and accurate.

Twitter Canadian health care mall –

The involvement of the person with diabetes in monitoring and control of their own condition has always been essential for successful treatment. With the development of blood glucose monitoring, this has become even more apparent: it allows you to measure precisely how effective you are at balancing the conflicting forces of diet, exercise and insulin, and to make adjustments in order to maintain this balance with. In the early days after the discovery of insulin, urine tests were the only tests available and it required a small laboratory even to do these. Urine tests have always had the disadvantage that they are only an indirect indicator of what you really need to know, which is the level of glucose in the blood. Blood glucose monitoring first became available to people with diabetes in 1977 and is now widely accepted. As anyone who has monitored glucose levels in the blood will know, these vary considerably throughout the day as well as from day to day. For this reason, a single reading at a twice yearly visit to the local diabetes clinic is of limited value in assessing long-term success or failure with control.

The introduction of haemoglobin Ale (glycosylated haemoglobin or HbA1c) has provided a very reliable test for longer-term monitoring of average blood glucose levels (taking into account the peaks and troughs) over an interval of two to three months. Someone with diabetes should aim at a target HbA1c of 7%, which indicates that the blood glucose has been contained within the near normal range. Provided there have been no troublesome hypoglycaemic attacks, this means that balance of diabetes has been excellent and no further changes are required. Achieving a normal HbA1c level and maintaining it as near normal as possible is an important goal. Not everyone can achieve this, but it is undoubtedly the most effective way of eliminating the risk of long-term complications.

You can consult with any questions on the site of the disease. Qualified professionals are always online 24 hours.

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Venous Thromboembolism and Australia Pharmacy

2014-10-28 / Other / No Comment

Proven, symptomatic VTE or fatal PE occurring between discharge from hospital, when thromboprophylaxis was stopped, and 3 months later. Values in parentheses are %. Venous Thromboembolism

Sudden death occurred in three patients with known heart disease. No autopsies were performed, so PE was not excluded.

Thus, while extended prophylaxis appears to reduce the relative risk of symptomatic VTE by about 60%, the absolute risk reduction is low, especially for PE.

Six randomized, placebo-controlled clinical tri-als have evaluated extended LMWH prophylaxis for up to 35 days among THR patients who completed in-hospital prophylaxis with either LMWH (ie, enoxaparin or dalteparin) or warfarin. Each study observed lower rates of venographically screened DVT with extended prophylaxis. A systematic review of these six trials demonstrated a significant decrease in both total and proximal DVT with extended LMWH use, as well as reduced risk of symptomatic VTE arising during the treatment period generic viagra new zealand. The rates of out-of-hospital symptomatic VTE were 4.2% with in-hospital prophylaxis and 1.4% with extended prophylaxis (relative risk, 0.36; p < 0.001; NNT, 36). In another randomized clinical trial that compared in-hospital use of LMWH and LMWH therapy that was continued after hospital discharge, extended prophylaxis did not further prevent symptomatic VTE.

One clinical trial also confirmed the benefit of posthospital discharge pophylaxis with VKAs. More than 350 consecutive patients undergoing THR were randomized to receive warfarin prophylaxis (target INR, 2 to 3) until hospital discharge (mean duration, 9 days) or for another 4 weeks after hospital discharge. DUS was performed 1, 2, and 4 weeks post-hospital discharge. The study was prematurely terminated because of the demonstrated superiority of extended prophylaxis. VTE occurred in 5.1% of in-hospital prophylaxis patients, and in 0.5% of those who continued warfarin, a relative risk of 9.4 (95% CI, 1.2 to 73.5). The NNT to prevent one VTE using extended warfarin prophylaxis was 22.

Only one patient experienced major bleeding. In another trial of 1,279 patients undergoing THR, the LMWH reviparin (4,200 U SC once daily) was compared with a VKA (target INR, 2 to 3), both administered for 6 weeks. Objectively confirmed, symptomatic VTE occurred in 2.3% of patients receiving LMWH, and in 3.3% of those receiving the VKA (p = 0.3). However, the rates of major bleeding were 1.3% and 5.5%, respectively (p = 0.001). Thus, these studies indicate that VKAs also may provide effective extended prophylaxis after THR, although major bleeding is more frequent with the use of these anticoagulants.

Extending LMWH prophylaxis to postoperative day 28 in one clinical trial of patients undergoing TKA did not significantly reduce the rate of objectively screened DVT (17.5%) compared to 7 to 10 days of prophylaxis (20.8%). Hospital readmission rates for VTE also did not differ significantly (3.2% and 5.4%, respectively).

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Asthma-like symptoms and the risk for BHR

2014-10-22 / Asthma / No Comment

Current smokers in both our samples had the largest BHR values, with an OR of 1.39 for getting an elevated slope. The tendency to an increased BR for smokers has been observed in previous studies, and it has been supported by pathological evidences of important changes in large and peripheral airways induced by smoke, which lead to different degrees of airway obstruction. Moreover, Mitsunobu and associates reported that the cumulative dose of methacholine causing a significant increase in total respiratory resistance was significantly lower in asthmatics with a smoking history than in those without it. risk for BHR

We also showed a strong relationship between chronic bronchitis-like or asthma-like symptoms and the risk for BHR (OR, 1.30 and OR, 2.65, respectively), bringing further evidence to a reappraisal of the Dutch hypothesis. Furthermore, our findings underline the association of a positive skin reactivity (OR, 1.32) or of higher total IgE values (OR, 1.61) with an enhanced BR, according to other studies.

We also confirmed the inverse relationship between airway caliber and BHR, which could be ascribed to anatomic, mechanical, and mathematical factors: the flow resistance in a tube is inversely proportional to the radius of the tube to the fourth power Cheap Viagra. This leads to a proportionally greater resistance for a narrow airway. Hence, the influence of baseline lung function must be accounted for when analyzing BHR.

BHR and Urban Residence

In our investigation, after controlling for the independent effects of gender, age, smoking habits, respiratory symptoms/diseases, and atopic status, residence in an urban area appears to be an independent risk factor for BHR (OR, 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13 to 1.76). Interestingly, such an OR is of the same magnitude as the one for active smoking (1.39).

Likely, there is higher outdoor air pollution in urban than in rural areas. Indeed, when we had evaluated pollutants (sulfur dioxide, total suspended particulate) from the two areas, we had found higher mean annual levels in Pisa than in Po Delta, with differences of 40 ^g/m3 for total suspended particulate (94 ^g/m3 and 54 ^g/m3, respectively) and 7 ^g/m3 for sulphur dioxide (15 ^g/mand 8 ^g/m3, respectively).

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We have confirmed the important role of several risk factors for BHR

2014-10-14 / Disease / No Comment

Pisa, the slope values began to go up from 25 to 34 years, while in Po Delta from 45 to 54 years. Moreover, in Pisa, the highest slope values were reached at 65 to 74 years while in Po Delta at 8 to 14 years. “Current smokers” showed mean slope values significantly higher than “ex-smokers” and “never-smokers” in Po Delta; the same difference, although not significant, was observed in Pisa. In both samples, mean ln slope values showed a significantly increasing trend from the “others” through the “chronic bronchitis-like subjects” up to the “asthmalike subjects”; further, mean ln slope values were significantly higher in atopic subjects (high values of IgE or positive skin-prick test reaction).

By logistic regression analysis, the risk factors significantly associated with an elevated ln slope value were as follows: female gender, younger age (8-14 years and 15-24 years), current smokers, asthma-like subjects, positive Viagra online in Australia skin-prick test reaction, and elevated log IgE value (Table 5). Moreover, airway caliber had a significant protective relationship with BHR. After controlling for the independent effects of all these variables, people living in the urban area had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.41 of getting BHR with respect to people living in the rural area (Table 5). No significant association was found between BHR and either work or passive smoking exposure.


We have confirmed the important role of several risk factors for BHR. The significantly higher risk of an elevated ln slope of the dose-response curve in female Viagra online Canada subjects is in agreement with previous studies on adults and on children. Possible mechanisms, as reported by Paoletti are a higher cholinergic irritability in female subjects and hormonal differences related to sex (such as pregnancy and menstrual cycle).

The distribution of BR by age showed a “U” pattern, with the highest values corresponding to the youngest and oldest ages. Sparrow and Weiss had already indicated larger BHR values at the age extremes. These results were confirmed partially by Renwick and Con-nolly, who described a weak positive association between BHR and age in a population sample aged 45 to 86 years, and by Schwartz who found the highest BHR values in the younger subjects within a sample aged 18 to 60 years.

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Lung Diseases

2014-10-13 / Disease / No Comment

Subsequent information provided by the local environment control authorities on nitrogen dioxide indicated a difference of 41 ^g/m3 (mean annual levels: 59 ^g/m3 in Pisa and 18 ^g/m3 in Po Delta).

The Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults also found that the annual average concentration of air pollutants was higher in urban areas than in rural/alpine areas. Moreover, it showed a relationship between annual average air pollution concentration and decrement in lung function parameters: for example, a 1.59% reduction in FEVwas estimated in healthy never-smokers for a 10 ^g/m3 increase of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 ^m.

The prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms and the chromosome aberrations baseline frequency were significantly higher in Pisa than in Po Delta. These findings might be due to the larger exposure to air pollution in Pisa. An indication of this hypothesis comes from the data regarding the self-perception of air pollution exposure: 55% of the Pisa subjects reported exposure to air pollution sources (industrial fumes/gases and traffic), while only 15% of Po Delta subjects did so. A study in Scotland highlighted that urban residence is associated with worse respiratory health status or quality of life among subjects reporting respiratory symptoms/ diseases than rural residence. Moreover, people living in the urban area of Pisa had a higher value of serum antibodies to benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide-DNA adducts than people living in the suburban area of Pisa.

Few recent studies analyzed the relation between BHR and air pollution indicators, confirming our findings. Jang and colleagues found a significant increase in BHR and atopy in children living near a chemical factory with respect to those in rural/coastal areas. A similar result has been shown in a study about BHR in urban, periurban, and rural South African children. Furthermore, Longhini and col-leagues showed that normal children living in an air-polluted area had a higher prevalence of BHR, compared with those living in mountain valleys.

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Anatomy and Physiology of the Nose

2014-10-08 / Nose / No Comment

Computer-based literature searches were used to identify all reports and reviews concerned with nasal conditions and SDB. These reports were read by the authors, reanalyzed, and grouped into those evaluating nasal-associated effects on SDB in normal control subjects, patients with nasal conditions or SDB, and children. Nose

Anatomy and Physiology of the Nose

The nose is lined by pseudostratified epithelium resting on a basement membrane, separating it from deeper submucosal layers. The submucosa contains mucous, seromucous, and serous glands. The small arteries, arterioles, and arteriovenous anastamoses determine regional blood flow. Capacitance vessels, consisting of veins and cavernous sinusoids, determine nasal patency. Constriction and relaxation of these venous capacitance vessels is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system Viagra online Australia. The cavernous sinusoids lie beneath the capillaries and venules, are most dense in the inferior and middle turbinates, and contain smooth-muscle cells controlled by the sympathetic nervous system. Loss of sympathetic tone or, to a lesser degree, cholinergic stimulation causes this sinusoidal erectile tissue to become engorged. Cholinergic stimulation causes arterial dilation and promotes the passive diffusion of plasma proteins into glands and the active secretion by mucous glands in cells.

Novel neurotransmitters, including substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and vasointestinal peptide, have been detected in nasal secretions after nasal allergen challenge of patients with allergic rhinitis. Antidromic stimulation of sensory nerve fibers in the nose can release a variety of neurotransmitters including substance P, a mediator of increased vascular permeability. Because neurotransmitters also produce changes in regional blood flow and glandular secretion, their role in rhinitis may be important.

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